The 2021 Nobel Prizes went to 12 men and one woman, honoured in Oslo and Stockholm on Friday.
Winners cropped from investigative journalists to a Zanzibari novelist, to trailblazers on climate and touch…
Here are the 2021 laureates:
– Medicine –
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian, both of the United States, won for their discoveries on human receptors for temperature and touch.
– Physics –
Syukuro Manabe (Japan-US) and Klaus Hasselmann (Germany) were honoured for their research on climate models, while Giorgio Parisi (Italy) won for his work on the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems.
– Chemistry –
Benjamin List (Germany) and David MacMillan (Britain-US) won for developing a tool to build molecules that have spurred new drug research, scaled up production and made chemistry more environmentally friendly.
– Literature –
Tanzanian-born British novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah was honoured “for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents”.
– Peace –
Journalists Maria Ressa (Philippines-US) and Dmitry Muratov (Russia) won “for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression.”
– Economics –
David Card (US-Canada), Joshua Angrist (US-Israel) and Guido Imbens (US-Netherlands), won for research on “natural experiments”, or observational studies, that have revolutionised empirical research in fields ranging from the labour market to immigration and education.
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